Death of Socrates
­õ ¾Ç ´£ ¨Ñ ªº ´º ¶H ¡A ¤£ ¶È ¹³ ±d ¼w [ I. KANT ] ©Ò »¡ ªº ¾Ô ³õ ¡A ¦Ó §ó ¹³ ¶Â ®æ º¸ [ G.W.F. HEGEL ] ©Ò »¡ ªº ®I ¸® ¾Ô ¤h ªº ¹Ó ¦a ¡C ¥¦ ÁÙ ³Ð ³y ¤F ¤@ ºØ ¾¹ ©x Àx ¦s ®w ©M ©î ¨ø ¹s ¥ó ¦^ ¦¬ ³B ¡A ´N ¨ä ¹ï «C ¦~ ªº ±Ð ¨| ¦Ó ¨¥ ¡A ¥¦ §ó ¹³ ³Ð ³y µo ©ú ªº ®c ·µ ¡A ¨ä ¤¤ ¦³ ³s Äò ¤£ Â_ ªº µo ©ú ´º Æ[ ¡C

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What is Philosophy ?

¹ï §Ú ¨Ó »¡ ­n µ¹ ¡u ­õ ¾Ç ¡v ¤@ Ãã ¤U ©w ¸q ¬O ¥ó §x Ãø ªº ¨Æ ¡C
µL ½× µ¹ ¥¦ ¤° »ò ©w ¸q ¡A Á` ¥i ¥H §ä ¨ì »P ¤§ ¬Û ¤Ï ªº ©w ¸q ¡C ³o ¤@ ÂI ¤j ¥i ¨£ ¤§ ©ó ¾ã ­Ó ­õ ¾Ç ¥v ¡Ð ¡] ·í µM ³o ¨à ©Ò «ü ªº ¬O ¦è ¤è ­õ ¾Ç ¥v ¡F ©ó ªF ¤è ¡Ð ¤× ¨ä ¬O ¹ï ¤¤ °ê ¨Ó »¡ ¡A ¡u ­õ ¾Ç ¡v ¤@ Ãã ªº ¤Þ ¤J ¤] ¥u ¬O ªñ ´X ¤Q ¦~ ¨Ó ªº ¨Æ ¦Ó ¤v ¡A ©Ò ¥H ®Ú ¥» ´N ¨S ¦³ ¤U ©w ¸q ªº °Ý ÃD ¡^¡C ¸Ü Áö ¦p ¦¹ ¡A ­Y µM ­n »¡ §Ú ­Ì ÁÙ ¬O ¥i ¥H §â ¡u ­õ ¾Ç ¡v ¬Ý ¦¨ ¬O Ãö ©ó «ä ·Q ªº «ä ·Q ¡F ³o ¤@ ÂI ¥¿ ¦n ±a ¥X ¡u ­õ ¾Ç ¡v ªº ¤@ ­Ó ´¶ ¹M ¯S ©Ê ¡G ²Ä ¤G ¼h §Ç ªº ¡C §Ú ­Ì ¦³ ª« ²z ¾Ç ¡A ¦Û µM ¥i ¥H ¦³ ¹ï ª« ²z ¾Ç ªº «á ³] «ä ¦Ò ¡F ¦P ¼Ë ªº ¹ï ©ó ¾ú ¥v ¡B ¤å ¾Ç ¡B ¤ß ²z ¾Ç ¡B ¸g ÀÙ ¾Ç ¡K ¥ô ¦ó ª¾ ÃÑ »â °ì ¡A ¬Æ ¦Ü ©v ±Ð ¡B «H ¥õ ¥H ­P ©ó Ãö ©ó ¥@ ¬É ©Î ¨ä ¥ô ¦ó ºc ¦¨ ³¡ ¥÷ ³£ ¥i ¥H ¦³ ¤@ «á ³] ªº «ä ¦Ò ¡C
±q ª¾ ÃÑ ªº ¼h ¦¸ Æ[ ¡A §Ú ­Ì ¥i ¥H §â ¡u ­õ ¾Ç ¡v ¬Ý §@ ²Ä ¤G ¼h §Ç ªº «ä ·Q ¡F ¦ý ¹ï §Ú ¨Ó »¡ ¡A ­õ ¾Ç ¬O ¤@ ºØ ¥Í ¬¡ ¤è ¦¡ ©Î ºA «× ¡] a way/style of life ¡^ ¡C

It is difficult to define "Philosophy".

Most definitions of philosophy are fairly controversial, particularly if they aim to be at all interesting or profound. That is partly because what has been called philosophy has changed radically in scope in the course of history, with many inquiries that were originally part of it having detached themselves from it. The shortest definition, and it is quite a good one, is that philosophy is thinking about thinking. That brings out the generally second-order character of the subject, as reflective thought about particular kinds of thinking---formation of beliefs, claims to knowledge---about the world or large parts of it.
(The OxfordCompanion to Philosophy)

For me, Philosophy is a style of life.


Map of Philosophy .

­õ ¾Ç §@ ¬° ¤@ ªù ª¾ ÃÑ À³ ¸Ó ¦p ¦ó ¾Ç ²ß ¡H
¶Ç ²Î ¤W ¡] ·í µM ¬O ¦è ¤è ªº ¡^ ¦³ ¨â ±ø ¶i ¸ô ¡G ¡Ð
  1. ±q ­õ ¾Ç ¥v ¶} ©l ¡C
  2. ±q ª¾ ÃÑ ¦Í ²Î ¨Ó ¬ã ¨s ¡A ¦¹ ¤S ¥i ¦³ ¨â ­Ó ¤è ¦V ¡G
    1. ­õ ¾Ç °Ý ÃD ¡Ð ¤° »ò ¬O ª« ¡H ¤° »ò ¬O ¤ß ¡H ®É ¶¡ ¬O ¤° »ò ¡H ¡K
    2. ­õ ¾Ç ¾Ç ¬ì ¡Ð ¬ì ¾Ç ­õ ¾Ç ¡A ¤ß ÆF ­õ ¾Ç ¡A ­Û ²z ¾Ç ¡A ©v ±Ð ­õ ¾Ç ¡A ¡K
²{ ¤µ ¥ç ¦³ ¥t Ãþ ªº ¶i ¸ô ¡K
  1. ±M ®a ªº ¬ã ¨s ¡G ¥i ±q ¬Y ¤@ ­õ ¾Ç ®a ªº µÛ §@ ¶} ©l µÛ ¤â ¡A ¨Ò ¦p ±q µÜ ¥¬ ¥§ ¯Y ¡] Leibniz ¡^ ªº ³æ ¤l ½× ¦Ó ¦Ü ©ó ¥L ªº ¨ä ¥L §@ «~ ¡K ¡C
  2. ºÃ Ãø §Ú ­Ì ¦Û ¨­ ©Î ©P ¾D ªº ¥@ ¬É ¶} ©l ¡A ¨Ò ¦p «á ²{ ¥N ¥D ¸q ¡B ¦s ¦b ¥D ¸q ©Î ªF ¤è ªº ­õ ¾Ç µ¥ ´N ¬O ¦p ¦¹ ³o ¯ë ¶} ©l ¡C
¦b §Ú ¨Ó »¡ ­õ ¾Ç À³ ±q ¦Û ¨­ ªº ¿³ ½ì ¤Î °Ý ÃD ¨Ó µo ®i ¡C

Philosophy as a target, how to study it?

In tradition, there are two approaches:
From history of philosophy - talk from the origin: who, place and time etc..
From Knowledge system -
    a) Problems of Philosophy, i.e. what is matter? what is mind? what is body? ...
    b) Subjects of Philosophy, i.e. philosophy of science, philosophy of mind ...

Now, there are another approaches:
    a) From the works of a special philosopher, i.e. Leibniz, Hegel, Deleuze...
    b) From ourself or the world around us, i.e. Postmodernism, Oriental Philosophy

For me, philosophy should be based on your interests and questions to develop.


My Interests...

§Ú ­Ó ¤H ªº ¿³ ½ì ¡A ³Ì ªì ¬O ±q ¥§ ¨¼ ¡] Nietzsche ¡^ ¶} ©l ¡C µM «á ¬O ²Ã ¥d ¨à ¡A ¡] Descartes ¡^ ¡B ±d ¼w ¡] Kant ¡^ ¡B ¥ð ÂÓ ¡] Hume ¡^ ¡B ­J ¶ë º¸ ¡] Husserl ¡^ ¡B ¦Ó ¦Ü ©ó ®ü ¼w ®æ ¡] Heidegger ¡^ µ¥ ¡C
¦b ¾Ç ¬ì ¤è ­± «h ¦³ ¬ì ¾Ç ­õ ¾Ç ¡B »y ¨¥ ­õ ¾Ç ¡B §Î ¤W ¾Ç ¡B ÅÞ ¿è ­õ ¾Ç ¡B ¤ß ÆF ­õ ¾Ç ¤Î ²{ ¶H ¾Ç µ¥ ¡C
­õ ¾Ç ®a ¤è ­± ¡Ð
¨È ¨½ ´µ ¦h ¼w ¡] Aristotle ¡^ ±Ð ¤F §Ú ¥Í ©R ¤¤ ªº ²Ä ¤@ ¥ó ­n ¨Æ | ¯À ¬O ¯u ²z »P ²z ©Ê ¡C
¥ð ÂÓ ¡] Hume ¡^ «h ®i ¥Ü µ¹ §Ú ¡G Ãh ºÃ ¬O ª¾ ÃÑ ¤§ ©l ¡C
¥§ ¨¼ ¡] Nietzsche ¡^ µ¹ ¤© §Ú µL ¼Æ ÆF ·P »P ±Ò ¥Ü ¡A ¹L ¥h ¦p ¬O ¡B ²{ ¦b ¤Î ±N ¨Ó ¥ç ¦p ¬O ¡C
»ô §J ªG ¡] Kierkegaard ¡^ ¥O §Ú ©ú ¥Õ ¨ì ¦ó ¿× µJ ¼{ ¤Î ­P ¦º ¤§ ¯f ¡F Áö «h ¨ä ¸Ñ ¨M ¤§ ¹D §Ú ¨Ã ¤£ ¯à ±o ¤§ ©ó ¥L ¡A ¤Ï ¦Ó ±o ¦Û ©ó ¦ò ±Ð ¡C
®ü ¼w ®æ ¡] Heidegger ¡^ ´£ ¨Ñ ¤F ¹ï ­õ ¾Ç »P ¤å ¤Æ ªº ¥t Ãþ ¸ô ¦V ¡C
¶Â ®æ º¸ ¡] Hegel ¡^ ³º µM ¹ï ²{ ¥N °ê ®a ¤Î ¬F ªv ªº ²z ©À ¦³ ²` ¨è ªº ¬} ¨£ ¡C
ªi ¬f º¸ ¡] Karl Popper ¡^ «ü ¥Ü ¤F ¶} ©ñ ªÀ ·| ¤Î §å §P ²z ©Ê ¤§ ¸ô ¡C
·í µM ±q ¤¤ °ê ­õ ¾Ç ¡A ¤× ¨ä ¬O ¡m ½× »y ¡n ¤¤ §Ú ¾Ç ·| ¤F °µ ¤H ¤§ ¹D ¡A ¥B ¨è ¦L ¦b §Ú ¤º ¦b ¥Í ©R ¤§ ¤¤ ¡C
²{ ¤µ ¡A ³Å ¬_ ¡] Michael Foucault ¡^ ªº §@ «~ ²` ²` ¦a §l ¤Þ µÛ §Ú ¡A ¥L ¬O ²{ ¤µ «D ±` ¿W ¯S ªº ­õ ¾Ç ®a ¡C

My journey is from Nietzsche, and then Descartes, Kant, Hume, Husserl, Heidegger ... . The major fields are Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Mind and Phenomenology... .

Philosophers, I interest in :
Aristotle: he taught me that Truth and Reason are the first thing in our life.
Hume: Doubt is the beginning of knowledge.
Nietzsche: he give me more inspiration until now and then.
Kierkegaard: he let me know what is anxiety and sickness to death.
Heidegger: a new approach to the philosophy and culture.
Hegel: have a deep insight to the modern state and politics.
Karl Popper: he point out an open society and critical thinking for me.
Of course, from Chinese Philosophy , especially Lun Yu (Analects), I learn the style of inner Life.

Now I hope to study Michael Foucault - a very special philosopher in modern time.


Books Review

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy
Author: Ted Honderich,Editor
Oxford University Press
ISBN 0-19-866132-0

This is the most authoritative and engaging philosophical reference book in English. It gives clear and reliable guidance to all areas of philosophy and to the ideas of all notable philosophers from antiquity to the present day.The scope of the volume is not limited to English-language philosophy: it surveys the foremost philosophy from all parts of the world. A distinguished international assembly of 249 contributors provide almost 2,000 alphabetically arranged entries which are not only instructive but also entertaining: they combine learning,lucidity, elegance, and wit .

For me, this is a good reference book in philosophy.


Readers' Response

  • Email A: 11:12PM. 30 August, 1996
    Recieved an email from "Eddie". But no response address:
    "Hello Kin-Fai,
    My name is Eddie, I like philosophy very much but I am a beginner. Would you like to suggest some philosophical book(s) for me especially western philosophy.
    Thanks for your help
    Eddie :->"

    Dear Eddie,
    There are many introductory books for Western Philosophy. Recently, I received two books which are good for you:
    1. Jostein Gaarder, " Sophie's World".
      Berkley Pub Group - ISBN: 0425156842
      As the comment said,
      "An Alice in Wonderland for the 90s ... a simply wonderful, irresistible book."
      This book developed through a story as "An Alice in Wonderland" to introduce history of western philosophy.
      Two words: interesting and exciting.
    2. Roger Scruton, "Modern Philosophy"
      Penguin USA (Paper) - ISBN: 0140249079
      From knowledge system to introduce philosophy, an essential and comprehensive guide to modern thinking.
      A "Study Guide" included in the book give you a further reading.

    Kin-Fai Chong
    30 August, 1996

  • Email B: 09:25PM. 24 September, 1996
    Email from Eddie Lo:
    "I am a beginner of philosophy, Would you like to suggest some Chinese edition of philosophy books for me.My interest is on western philosophy
    Thanks for your attention
    Dear Eddie Lo,
    Chinese edition of western philosophy books:
    1. ­ð §g ¼Ý¡A ­õ ¾Ç ·§ ½×¡C ¾Ç ¥Í ®Ñ §½¡C ¡e ¨â ¥¨ ¥U¡G ¦b ¶Â ®æ º¸ [Hegel,Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770-1831) ] ªº ¼v ¤l ¤U ©Ò ¦¨ ¡A ¤º ®e ¬Û ·í Á} Àß ¡A¦¹ ¤D ¥Ñ ©ó §@ ªÌ ¤å µ§ ©Ò ­P ¡C ¡f
    2. ³Å °¶ ¾±¡A ¦è ¬v ­õ ¾Ç ¥v¡C ¤T ¥Á ®Ñ §½¡C ¡e ² ©ú ¦è ¤è ­õ ¾Ç ¥v ¡C ¡f
    Others translation from foreign languages:
    1. ù ¯À [ Russell, Bertrand (1872-1970) ]¡A ¦è ¤è ­õ ¾Ç ¥v [ History of Western Philosophy ] ¡C °Ó °È ¦L ®Ñ À] ¡C¡e ¦¹ ®Ñ ±q ªÀ ·| ¸g ÀÙ ¨¤ «× ¬Ý ­õ ¾Ç ªº µo ®i ¡C ¡f
    2. «Â º¸ . §ù Äõ [ Durant, Will (1885-1981) ] ¡A ¦è ¬v ­õ ¾Ç ¥v ¸Ü [ The Story of Philosophy ] ¡C ¨ó §Ó ¤u ·~ ÂO ®Ñ ¡C ¡e ±q ¤H ¤å ¾ú ¥v ¾Ç ªÌ ªº ¨¤ «× ¥X ªk ¡C ¦¹ ®Ñ ½ì ¨ý ©Ê ¬Æ °ª ¡C ¡f
    3. «Â º¸ . §ù Äõ [ Will Durant ] ¡A­õ ¾Ç ªº ½ì ¨ý [The Mansion of Philosophy ] ¡C ¨ó §Ó ¤u ·~ ÂO ®Ñ ¡C ¡e ¥t Ãþ ·§ ½× ©Ê ®Ñ ¡C ¡f
    4. ¥¬ ¾| ®æ [Verlog Herder K.G. ] ¡A ¦è ¬v ­õ ¾Ç Ãã ¨å [Philosophisches Woerterbuch ] ¡C ¥ý ª¾ ¥X ª© ªÀ ¡C ¡e ¤¤ ¤å ¶È ¦³ ªº ¤@ ¥» Ãã ¨å Ãþ ®Ñ ¡C¡f
    Kin-Fai Chong
    24 September, 1996

  • Email C: 22:41:25. 28 June, 1998
    Recieved an email from "Shun Ma". I think it is useful to all ( I hope Shun Ma don't mind ):
    "hi, chong,,
    i think that the death of socrates is probably not represenatative of democracy. for democracy is not simply the minoirty accpeting the decision of the majority. aristotle observes that the majority in the society must be less educated and less independent and clear in thinking. they would normally use their passion and their trust of somebody to be their ground of judgement, instead of judging thing rationally or according to their reasons. according, a society that simply following the decision of the majority would be very likely to produce totalitarianian leader (like the case in China. if you look at the Chinese history, you would find that almost every founder of dynasties had gained supported from majority of people. and that is what Mencius means tha mandate of heaven. the people based on their trust of the heroes of their own times, thus handed over their autonomy to the heroes and made the heroes their soverigns. as a result, every soverign (the emperor) became totalitarian, even sometimes they had benefited their people.) i personally favor aristotlean idea of democracy. that is the society is governed by laws which legislate by the social elites (for social elites are generally more educated and are having more rational perspective.) and the majority of people have right to elect the people who do legislation (therefore the majority can restrain the power of the leading group and avoid the emerging of totalitarianism). the most important thing is everyone in the society has to obey the laws, no matter what the majority think at one point of time (to avoid people making decision when their emotion have overwhelmed their reasons, like the case of the death of socrates). and we can see that the entire western democratic nations are now following this aristotlean democracy ( set up constitutions of the nation by elites leading groups and public election).
    accordingly, i would think the death of socrates was the cost of misunderstanding democracy (and certainly a great philosophical lost). this is my personal opinion of the death of socrates. (i am by no mean to criticize your opinion, i just like to interflow some of my thought to other philo-philosophy)
    thank you for your attention and i am very happy to talk philosophy with you.
    nice to talk to you.

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